Scholarly sources were reviewed to determine different strategies to teach students with minimizing negative interactions. Errorless learning is a research-based strategy that minimizes errors with few or no responses to the negative stimulus. Time-Delay and prompting are two types of errorless learning techniques examined in this presentation. Time delay is exhibited during activities where a response is required. The duration between the cue and the response can be constant or progressive. Constant time delay has a constant amount of time between cue and response, where progressive time-delay increases duration of time before scaffolding is provided. If no response or an incorrect response is provided, the instructor responds with the correct answer in a positive way and increases scaffolding. The teacher can use different prompting techniques to encourage correct student responses. Prompting is a form of scaffolding that increases desired responses. The hierarchy consists of many different types of prompting techniques; natural environmental cues are the least restrictive and full physical are the most intrusive. As students improve on desired skills, scaffolding and prompting should decrease. Research indicates that when errorless learning is implemented with fidelity, a student’s self-esteem increases and undesired responses decrease. Errorless learning can be implemented in a multitude of settings, meaning general and special education students can learn through this type of instruction.


Special Education and Teaching