International Journal of Exercise Science 9(1): 4-15, 2016. The role of social facilitation by way of audience effect in select exercise-related variables during an isometric handgrip task was assessed using a mixed design. Fifty three moderately active participants (Mage= 21.76 + 5.27) were recruited from the Midwestern United States. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: supportive audience or control. Audience members provided positive verbal encouragement to participants in the experimental condition throughout the task performance. Participants in the control group performed the task in the absence of an audience and did not receive any verbal encouragement. Participants provided anxiety ratings pre- and post-task using the State-trait anxiety inventory for adults (STAI). Participants’ ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were monitored and assessed at 30-second intervals. Upon task completion, sustained effort in the form of time on task was recorded in seconds. A repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) revealed that there was a time effect within groups of HR = ( F(2.64, 131.85) = 189.3 , p <0.001) and within groups of RPE = (F(2.97, 139.42) = 2189.43 p <0.001). An independent sample T-test revealed significant differences in HR at 0, 30 and 60 seconds between the groups. An independent sample T-test revealed no significant differences in anxiety and RPE between the groups. These results partially support the notion of social facilitation and may have implications for research and practice.
Leitzelar, Brianna N.; Razon, Selen; Tokac, Umit; Dieringer, Shannon; Book, Cindy; and Judge, Lawrence A.
"Effects of a Supportive Audience on a Handgrip Squeezing Task in Adults,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 9
Available at: http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol9/iss1/2