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Article Title

THE EFFECT OF EXERCISE SELF-EFFICACY ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ADIPOSITY, AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY AMONG OLDER ADULTS

Abstract

Jordan M. Glenn, Michelle Gray, Jennifer L. Vincenzo, Keyona Smith, Collin Canella; University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Arkansas

The impact of exercise self-efficacy (ESE) on physical activity (PA) and the ability to maintain healthy levels of body fat (BF) and bone mineral density (BMD) are unclear in older adults. PURPOSE: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ESE on PA, BF, and BMD among older adults. METHODS: Older adults (n = 76) were separated into tertiles (T1, T2, T3) based on ESE as scored by the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale. BMD and body composition were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and PA levels were measured using the Rapid Physical Activity Questionnaire. Variables were analyzed via MANOVA and follow-up univariate analyses were completed when significance was observed within the model. RESULTS: MANOVA revealed a significant Wilks Lambda (p < .001) and follow-up univariate analysis was completed for PA levels, android fat percentage (AFP), gynoid fat percentage (GFP), and spinal BMD.ANOVA revealed that the highest levels of ESE (T3) were significantly lower for AFP (p = .002) compared to T1 and T2 (30% and 26% lower, respectively) while GFP was significantly lower (p = .012) for T3 (24%) compared only to T1. Compared to T1 and T2, PA levels were significantly higher (p < .001) for T3. Analysis of spinal BMD was significantly higher (p = .030) for T2 (10%)compared only to T1. When investigating the relationship of ESE and PA, a significantly correlation (p < .001, r = .66) was observed. CONCLUSION: It is proposed that both ESE and PA are both involved in older individual’s ability to maintain longitudinal health. ESE appears to play a significant role in the conservation of health, but it cannot be considered the only factor. The correlation between ESE and PA suggest their relationship to each other, however the causal relationship cannot be determined. Understanding the cause/effect between ESE and PA could potentially help in not only initiating, but also maintaining PA in older adults.

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