Article Title



L. Kenyon1, V. Ugalde2, A. Traut2, C. Pollard3

1Western University of Health Sciences College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific-Northwest, Lebanon, OR,2The Center Orthopedic & Neurosurgical Care & Research, Bend, OR, & 3Oregon State University Cascades, Bend, OR

Lower extremity injuries are a common in high school athletes. Valid tests to assess for risk of injury that are easily performed during a pre-participation sports physical examination are lacking. PURPOSE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value (NPV) of a “positive” (abnormal posture) single leg squat (SLS) test in predicting lower extremity injuries in high school athletes. METHODS: Sixty-seven female soccer players from three different high schools in Bend, OR took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants performed 3 repetitions of a SLS test bilaterally during their pre-participation sports physical examination from 2013-2014. Individuals were partitioned into “positive” or “negative” groups based on the inability or ability (respectively) to perform >1/3 SLS tests on either side. Injuries received during sports in the following academic year were documented. Injuries were further divided into lower extremity (LE) and Non-LE injuries. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were calculated for SLS test in relation to LE injuries and any injury type. RESULTS: Forty-six of the 67 athletes (69%) had a positive SLS test result, whereas 21 (31%) had a negative SLS test result. There were 4 lower extremity injuries recorded during the 2013-2015 academic years within the study population, 2 occurring to participants with a positive SLS test result. There were 4 additional injuries, including 1 elbow injury, 1 wrist injury, and 2 concussions. The sensitivity of the SLS test in predicting LE injuries in the following academic year was 50%, specificity was 30%, and NPV was 90%. Sensitivity, specificity, and NPV of SLS test in predicting any injury was 75%, 32%, and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed the SLS test is an easy tool to use in pre-participation sports physical examinations to help assess for risk of lower extremity injury. Further research is needed to explore its utility in context of a larger sample size, other sports and athlete demographics.

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