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The empirical evidence to support the use of whole, raw almonds (A) and almond milk (AM) consumption is limited. While post-exercise supplementation of A has been utilized in previous studies (Yi et al., 2014), no previous research groups have utilized AM consumption as a form of post-exercise nutrient replenishment. The use of AM may provide a simple alternate form of nutrient supplementation compared to A. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the effects of A and AM on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and exercise performance. METHODS: Nineteen relatively active college-aged males and females (nm= 13, nf = 6) were randomly assigned into one of three conditions, A, AM, or control (C). Participants in each group completed a test session that consisted of countermovement jump (CMJ) tests, 40-yd dash, and Pain Pressure Threshold (PPT) in the hamstrings. At the end of the session, participants performed a drop-jump protocol to elicit DOMS then, immediately post-exercise, they consumed 70 g of A, 8 oz of AM, or nothing based on the condition to which they were assigned. All participants were retested for CMJ, 40-yd dash and PPT 48 hrs following A, AM, or no post-supplementation. A factorial ANOVA (significance level p < 0.05) was utilized to determine significant differences between experimental conditions for each dependent variable. RESULTS: No statistical differences (p = 0.48 - 0.53) were found between supplements for CMJ (C: 0.55 ± 0.15 m v. 0.54 ± 0.14 m, A: 0.56 ± 0.13 m v. 0.56 ± 0.13 m, AM: 0.47 ± 0.12 m v. 0.48 ± 0.13 m), 40-yd dash (C: 5.32 ± 0.68 s v. 5.42 ± 0.75 s, A: 5.19 ± 0.67 s v. 5.21 ± 0.65 s, AM: 5.67 ± 0.63 s v. 5.70 ± 0.65 s), and PPT (C: 18.40 ± 10.33 lbf v. 14.21 ± 6.29 lbf, A: 14.79 ± 5.14 lbf v. 14.29 ± 3.09 lbf, AM: 11.79 ± 4.14 lbf v. 11.02 ± 4.70). CONCLUSION: Under these research conditions, A and AM consumption did not improve anaerobic exercise performance, nor did they improve PPT. A possible explanation for the observed results may have been the small sample size, since the probability of a Type II error was approximately 86%. Larger sample population sizes could have elicited larger effect size and statistical power. However, since there is little empirical evidence in support of A and AM supplementation for exercise performance, it is possible that A or AM simply may have no effect on the observed dependent variables. Lastly, further research is needed to investigate the effect of A and AM consumption on exercise performance and DOMS over a variety of post-exercise durations, such as 24, 48 and 72 hrs.

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