Article Title

Normative Data for Overhead Back and Between-the-Legs Front Throws


Todora, J., Meyer, B. Shippensburg University, Shippensburg, PA

Purpose: Overhead back (OHB) and between-the-legs front (BLF) throws are components of total body power training programs. The distance of a throw, as a raw score, is difficult to evaluate. Percentiles permit the evaluation of raw scores and facilitate the comparison of two sets of data that are based on different units of measurement. By obtaining normative data for OHB and BLF throws, it will be possible to make comparisons with other power assessments. The purpose of this study was to obtain normative data for OHB and BLF throwing techniques in an undergraduate student population. Methods: Thirty-six male and thirty-three female undergraduate students participated in the study. For both throwing techniques, males used a 14 lb (6.35 kg) medicine ball and females used an 8 lb (3.63 kg) medicine ball. Subjects performed three trials for each technique, and distances were measured using a fiberglass tape. For each technique, the best of the three throws was used in the analysis. Percentiles were computed using the SPSS 18.0 default method. Paired t-tests were used to check for statistically significant differences between the two throws. The cut-off chosen for statistical significance was p = 0.05. Results: Males threw farther (p < 0.05) in the BLF (8.9 ± 1.5 m) than in the OHB (8.6 ± 1.6 m). Females also threw farther (p < 0.05) in the BLF (6.5 ± 1.3 m) than in the OHB (5.8 ± 1.3 m). Individuals who threw far using one technique tended to throw far using the other technique (r = 0.847, males; r = 0.845, females). Conclusion: The results of this project indicate that male and female undergraduate students are able to throw a medicine ball farther using the between-the-legs front technique than using the overhead back technique. The normative data obtained in this study provide a basis for classification of throwing proficiency and comparisons to other power assessments.

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