International Journal of Exercise Science 13(4): 1605-1614, 2020. Shoulder joint injuries are common for professional firefighters. A potential cause of shoulder injury is an imbalance between anterior (push) and posterior (pull) shoulder joint musculature. Understanding what contributes to these imbalances may help to identify areas needing improvement. The purpose of this study was to investigate different push to pull (P2P) ratios and the relationships among common upper body fitness assessments, body composition, and push to pull (P2P) ratios in firefighters. Thirty-three professional firefighters completed the following testing protocol: one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, pull-up repetitions to failure, push-up repetitions to failure, and a body composition assessment. The endurance P2P (eP2P) was computed by dividing the number of push-up by pull-up repetitions, while strength P2P (sP2P) was the relative 1RM divided by pull-up repetitions. Bivariate relationships among variables were assessed with correlation coefficients and linear regression assessed association between eP2P and sP2P (p ≤ 0.05). The sP2P and eP2P were not associated (R2 = 0.032, p = 0.99). Strength P2P was related with bench press 1RM (r = 0.80) and push-ups (r = 0.40). Endurance P2P was related with pull-up repetitions (r = -0.62), body fat percentage (r = 0.40), and fat mass index (r = 0.34). The results of the present study suggest sP2P and eP2P ratios should not be used interchangeably. To improve sP2P and eP2P for firefighters, it is recommended to improve the strength of anterior and posterior upper body musculature, respectively, and reduce total body fat mass.
Merrigan, Justin J.; Burke, Adam A.; Fyock-Martin, Marcie B.; and Martin, Joel R.
"What Factors Predict Upper Body Push to Pull Ratios in Professional Firefighters?,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 13
4, Pages 1605 - 1614.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol13/iss4/34