International Journal of Exercise Science 14(1): 446-461, 2021. This study examined the effect of isometric cervical strength and impact location of the hockey helmet in mitigating the risk of concussions for two different mechanisms of injury from a fall during head impact simulation testing. Isometric cervical strength was measured on 25 female hockey players to compute and model neck strength on a mechanical neckform. A dual-rail vertical drop system with a helmet mounted on a surrogate headform simulated the mechanisms of injury causing concussions on female ice hockey players. Measures of peak linear acceleration and risk of injury due to a head collision (GSI) were used to assess the magnitude of the head impact due to a fall across three neck strength measures (weak, average, strong), three helmet locations (front, rear, side), and two mechanisms of injury (direct, whiplash+impact). A three-way ANOVA revealed a significant main effect for impact mechanism on the magnitude of peak linear acceleration and GSI, with the whiplash+impact mechanism generating significantly greater peak linear acceleration and GSI than the direct impact mechanism. A significant two-way interaction effect was found between impact location and mechanism of injury on peak linear acceleration measures, with the direct impact on the side location generating significantly greater peak linear acceleration than the frontal location. On the contrary, the whiplash+impact mechanism revealed that the frontal impact location produced significantly greater peak linear acceleration than the side location. This outcome suggests the geometry of the helmet material and the type of mechanism of injury both play a role in concussion risk.
Pennock, Brittany; Kivi, Derek; and Zerpa, Carlos
"Effect of Neck Strength on Simulated Head Impacts During Falls in Female Ice Hockey Players,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 14
1, Pages 446 - 461.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol14/iss1/7