Other Subject Area

Health and Wellness Promotion


International Journal of Exercise Science 14(3): 876-884, 2021. In alignment with efforts to mitigate the negative health consequences of Parkinson’s Disease (PD), the purpose of this investigation was to examine if participation in a community-based boxing program (CBP) was associated with improvements in balance and fall risk reduction among individuals with PD. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, de-identified data from 12 individuals with PD participating in a CBP was examined. Participants included those with a Hoehn and Yahr stage between 1 and 3, averaging 2.8 ± 0.8 CBP sessions per week for 6.1 ± 0.8 months between testing. Baseline and re-evaluation testing included the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and Timed Up and Go (TUG) to quantify balance and fall risk. Sessions were 90-minutes in length involving a warm-up, boxing drills, strength and endurance exercises, and cool down. Sessions included multiple bouts of 30-60 second high-intensity exercise intervals (RPE between 15/20 to 17/20). Paired t-tests were used to determine if differences existed between the FAB and TUG from baseline to re-evaluation, with statistical significance accepted at p < 0.05 and > 0.8 interpreted as a large effect using Cohen’s d. Results indicated a statistically significant increase and large effect in FAB performance, with a mean increase in score above previously reported minimal detectable change (MDC). While participation in CBP was associated with a statistically significant improvement and medium effect in the TUG, this did not demonstrate a population specific MDC. This study found that participation in a CBP was associated with improved balance among clients with PD.