Henry Wang1, Ben Ose1, Christopher J Cleary3, Austin Cole2, Isaiah Roepe2, Rachel Long2, Ashley Herda3, & Matthew Vopat2

1 University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, Kansas; 2 Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; 3 Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas Edwards Campus, Overland Park, Kansas

Golf has widely been regarded as a low-impact sport commonly played for recreation, a major appeal to older populations. The golf swing requires a complex full-body movement involving all major joints including the hip, knee, ankle, shoulder, and rotator cuff. As age and osteoarthritis rates are positively correlated, there is an increasing number of individuals requiring total joint arthroplasty with return to sport consideration. PURPOSE: To systematically review the literature of golf swing mechanics following joint arthroplasty and identify knowledge gaps in sports science and sports medicine (SSSM) for golf athletes. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase was performed to identify journals analyzing golf swing biomechanics after joint arthroplasty. The search was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and the following search terms were included: “Golf AND swing AND (biomechanical OR biomechanic* OR kinematic* OR kinetic* OR dynamic* OR angle OR velocity* OR speed OR torque OR moment OR force OR GFR OR mechanic* OR power OR work OR energy* OR X factor) AND surgery”. The search was restricted to articles published in 2000 or later. RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 52 articles, of which five met the inclusion criteria for review. Two articles followed golf swing after total hip arthroplasty (THA) while three articles investigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Authors from both THA studies concluded that a golf swing does not contribute to excessive or dangerous rotation of the hip, supporting a safe return to sport. Among the TKA research, it was concluded that the golf swing generates higher tibial forces, suggesting a more cautious return to sport following total knee arthroplasty. CONCLUSION: While studies in total joint arthroplasty are numerous, the paucity of golf swing analyses following total joint arthroplasty represents a need for additional investigation as total joint arthroplasty is being performed more frequently and golf continues to gain popularity in older populations. Although there have been some studies investigating return to golf statistics, no use of kinematics through accelerometers were used nor any research comparing golf swing biomechanics pre- and post-operatively.

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