EFFECTS OF A HIGH PROTEIN, HIGH FIBER, OR HIGH SUGAR BREAKFAST ON SATIATION, LUNCHTIME CALORIC INTAKE, AND ACADEMIC METRICS IN PRE ADOLESCENTS
William R. Quarles1 and Brian S. Snyder1 1Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri; e-mail: email@example.com
It is known that the consistent daily ingestion of nutrients meeting recommendations are necessary for the growth and development of children with breakfast being reported as a key factor in overall diet quality. While the general recommendation to habitually consume breakfast is sound, the optimal macronutrient composition of this meal with regard to academic performance and satiety has yet to be fully elucidated, especially in children. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a calorie matched high protein, high sugar, or high fiber breakfast is effective for academic metrics (arithmetic, memory, focus) and/or satiety (satiation, hunger-fullness, lunchtime caloric intake, and total calorie intake) in children. METHODS: Twenty healthy preadolescents (age 5-11) volunteered for this study. After familiarization to testing protocol (sample academic tests, satiety story and instrument), children were split into the treatment groups using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Breakfast meals consisted of 320 calories by design (PROT [P 30g/F 6g/C 27g/Fib 3g] / FIB [P 11g/F 5g/C 59g/Fib 8g] / SUG [P 8g/F 6g/C 59g/Fib 1g]). Data collection occurred at the same time of day on three separate occasions 1 week apart. After familiarization to the survey pre-trial, each participant completed a satiety survey preceding and following the breakfast treatment and at intervals throughout the morning and after ad libitum lunch. Participants completed tests to measure academic performance, memory, and focus immediately prior to the lunch meal. RESULTS: Breakfasts were designed and pretested as described but during trials the actual average nutrient intake were as follows: PROT [P 19g/F 4g/C 24g/Fib 1g/224 Cal] / FIB [P 8g/F 3g/C 42g/Fib 5g/230 Cal] / SUG [P 6g/F 5g/C 51g/Fib .75g/275 Cal]. There were no significant main effects on academic tests or satiety surveys. Participants consumed PROT610±42 / 870±248, FIB613±53 / 888±273, and SUG618±48 / 943±263 calories at lunch and total. CONCLUSION: There was no effect of breakfast type on measured outcomes. However, some participants did not consume the treatment as designed resulting in high variability in individual macronutrient intake. The amount of familiarity to satiety scales was variable among individuals and may require additional time stabilizing in children.
Funding provided by a grant from Truman State University
Quarles, WR and Snyder, BS
"EFFECTS OF A HIGH PROTEIN, HIGH FIBER, OR HIGH SUGAR BREAKFAST ON SATIATION, LUNCHTIME CALORIC INTAKE, AND ACADEMIC METRICS IN PRE ADOLESCENTS,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings: Vol. 11:
3, Article 20.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijesab/vol11/iss3/20