Homocysteine (HCY) is a clinically implicated in inflammation and cardiovascular impairments. Although both betaine supplementation and acute resistance (both high-load [HL] and low-load blood flow restriction [LL-BFR]) training notably attenuate HCY concentrations, it is hitherto unknown if these independent modalities synergistically interact. PURPOSE: to determine whether a combination of betaine supplementation, as well as acute HL and/or LL-BFR training can attenuate post-exercise HCY more effectively than either isolated modality. METHODS: Eighteen recreationally trained males (25±5y) were randomized in double-blind fashion to supplement 6g/day of either betaine anhydrous (BET) or identically dosed cellulose placebo for 14-days. Subsequently, all subjects performed four standardized sets of one-leg press and two additional sets to muscular failure on both legs in a counter-balanced and crossover design. Specifically, one leg performed standard high-load (HL; 70%1RM) exercise and contralateral limb underwent BFR (LL-BFR; 20%1RM) training at 80% arterial occlusion pressure. Serum homocysteine (HCY) and betaine (BET) concentrations were analyzed before and 30-minutes post-exercise prior to quantification via ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. The changes in all aforementioned variables from baseline (∆HCY and ∆BET) were assessed via separate two-way mixed model ANOVA with repeated measures at a significance level of pRESULTS: Analyses failed to reveal any significant main nor interaction effects for serum ∆BET. Although no apparent main supplement nor interaction effects were observed, ∆HCY demonstrated a significant main exercise condition effect (p=.045; ηp2=.228), whereby the LL-BFR group displayed significantly greater concentrations versus HL (p=.045). CONCLUSION: While these findings ultimately do not support a betaine-resistance training synergy-mediated reduction in serum HCY, our data otherwise suggest BFR training may preferentially result in lower post-training concentrations relative to a commonly employed, high-load approach. Future research should elucidate the credence of this interpretation via additional longitudinal investigations amidst hyperhomocysteinemia-predisposed clinical populations.
Machek, Steven B.; Zawieja, Emilia; Heileson, Jeffery; Harris, Dillon; Wilburn, Dylan T.; Cholewa, Jason Michael; and Willoughby, Darryn
"Combined Blood Flow Restriction Training and Betaine Supplementation Impacts on Serum Betaine and Homocysteine Concentrations,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings: Vol. 14:
2, Article 52.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijesab/vol14/iss2/52