PURPOSE: Numerous athletes utilize music to train, warm-up, and during competition. Listening to music during sport activity can capture attention, distract from fatigue and comfort, alter mood state, relieve stress, and evoke a sense of power. The purpose of this study is to examine the literature to determine the impact of music on athletic performance. METHODS: Three databases were searched in September 2022. These included PubMed, Science Direct, Taylor & Francis Online, and the California State Polytechnic University Pomona OneSearch, which indexes over 20 databases within the field of exercise science. Articles that described an intervention program that utilized music as a part of their regimen, exercise bouts of varying intensity/duration were included for review. Studies were excluded if they did not focus on effects of music, were animal-based studies, or not published in English. RESULTS: Fourteen articles were identified. The current literature provides multiple positive impacts on athletic performance when combined with music. Studies reported that the introduction of a music stimulus has improved running cadence, and overall improved running performance over a six- minute time trial. Additionally, studies found music with a higher tempo has provided subjects with a greater blood flow rate, heart rate and heart rate recovery post exercise. Studies vary by the genre and tempo of music listened to. Studies primarily investigated the impact of listening to music during activity; very few assessed the impact of listening to music only during the warmup before activity. CONCLUSION: The need for research on the relationship of music and athletic performance is still necessary. Exercise is extremely beneficial for an individual’s health and if the introduction of music into a workout regimen is able to improve the performance of individuals, that exhibits the need for proper research comparing music’s effect of performance.



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