Article Title



Roman W. Galaska1, Killian D. Wustrow1, Nelson R. Vinueza2, Xinyi Sui2, Morgan Demmler2, Emiel A. DenHartog2, Scott R. Collier, FACSM1, Caroline J. Smith, FACSM1. 1Appalachian State University, Boone, NC. 2North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental toxicants produced during incomplete combustion and are linked to adverse health outcomes including cancer. Dermal absorption of PAHs has been minimally investigated due to the complexities of in vivo sampling. Initial in vitro procedures can be developed and optimized before in vivo application to assess skin penetration as an exposure route. PURPOSE: Determine optimal procedures for PAH recovery utilizing microdialysis (MD) for recovery of the non-carcinogenic PAH Anthracene (ANT). METHODS: Initial in vitro testing utilized two different MD fibers (BASi, 30 KDa molecular weight cutoff; CMA, 55 KDa molecular weight cutoff) fully submerged in a 2% ANT solution. ANT recovery was quantified following alterations in the following variables: 1) duration of equilibration time when perfusion pumps were off (10 min, 20 min), 2) concentration of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2β-CD) mixed with lactated Ringer’s used as an excipient (0%, 5%, and 10%), and 3) perfusion rate (1.5 uL/min, 1.0 uL/min, or 0.5 uL/min). MD fibers were submerged in the ANT solution and dialysate samples were collected intermittently. All protocols were repeated in a counterbalanced order. Dialysate samples were analyzed via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS:No ANT was detected in the CMA fiber samples under any conditions. Greatest ANT concentrations sampled from BASi fibers occurred during the 10 min Equilibration/1.0 ul/min perfusion rate/10% 2β-CD and 10 min Equilibration/0.5 ul/min perfusion rate/10% 2β-CD conditions, reporting 122.6 ppb and 209.0 ppb, respectively. ANT was detected but was lower than the limit of quantification under the 10 min Equilibration/1.0 ul/min perfusion rate/0% 2β-CD and 20 min Equilibration/0.5 ul/min perfusion rate/0% 2β-CD conditions. CONCLUSION: Careful consideration should be given to variables affecting substance recovery utilizing intradermal microdialysis. Under the conditions utilized, optimal procedures for ANT recovery utilized the BASi MD fiber under the 10 min Equilibration/10% 2β-CD with 0.5 ul/min or 1ul/min perfusion rate. Development of procedures for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon recovery in vitro using microdialysis are important for in vivo applications for dermal absorption assessment.

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