Article Title



Jesse N. L. Sims1, Justin J. Holland2, Travis Anderson1, William M. Adams, FACSM3. 1University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC. 2Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. 3United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO.

Background: Minimal data exist exploring the influence of age, physical activity (PA), and prevalence of associated chronic health conditions (CHC) on fluid intake (FI) behaviors and potential intercontinental differences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize how FI beliefs and behaviors may influence FI practices (beverage consumption, fluid volume, timing) between individuals residing in the United States (US) and Australia (AUS). Methods: 490 individuals (74.5% female; age, 25±6y; CHC, 16.3%; USA, 79.4%) completed a 23-item survey between November 2020 - June 2021. Participants were asked to detail their frequency of PA and FI (volume, frequency, and beverage type). FI beliefs were evaluated to determine their contribution to FI behaviors across the day and the presence of CHC. Multinomial and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association of daily FI beliefs and behaviors across multiple domains. An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare FI, beliefs, PA, and CHC between the US and AUS. Results: FI behaviors were significantly different between countries, with the US more likely to consume fluids to meet a total target volume (β=1.150, p=0.036) and consume fluid at the same time as structured daily activities (β=0.773, p=0.046) compared to FI alongside food intake. However, there were no differences in beverage consumption (water, juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, and beer), total fluid volume, PA, or FI beliefs between countries (p>0.05). Beverage consumption was higher among US than AUS residents for coffee, tea, and wine (all p<0.05). Total fluid consumption (mL) was greater among males (3189±2407mL) than females (2215±1132mL; β=3.61, p<0.001), individuals who regularly consumed fluid during the day to meet a targeted volume (β=1728.5, p<0.001), and those who regularly consumed fluid as a habitual behavior (β=3.97, p<0.001) compared to those individuals who only consumed fluid alongside mealtimes (β=1041.7, p<0.001). Individuals with a CHC were less likely to be aware of their frequency of FI (β=1880.9, p=0.001). Conclusions: FI behaviors differed between the US and AUS. However, FI behaviors did not influence total volume consumed, choice of beverage consumed, and FI beliefs. Therefore, FI practices and behavior appear to be individualized, and location does not significantly affect drinking behaviors among this population.

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