Article Title



Svetlana Nepocatych, Miranda Thompson. Elon University, ELON, NC.

BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diets have been used to treat disease with metabolic components, alter energy metabolism and aid in weight loss. An alternative to ketogenic diets is the use of ketone salt supplements to induce nutritional ketosis (blood ketone level of 0.5-3.0 mmol/L) in a short period of time. Previously, ketone salt consumption showed increased beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels, suppressed appetite hormone levels and hunger. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a 10-day supplementation with BHB ketone salts (KS) and placebo (PL) on appetite profile, energy intake, blood glucose and ketone levels. METHODS: Fourteen healthy females (age: 26±6 y, body fat %: 28.5±8.0, Body Mass Index: 26±8.4 kg/m2) were recruited to participate in a single-blind crossover study. Participants were randomly assigned to consume either 0.25g/kg of KS or flavor matched PL for 10 days with a 14-day wash-out period in-between. During each visit participants completed an appetite profile using Visual Analog Scale (VAS; 0-100mm) at pre, 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes and blood glucose and ketone levels were measured pre, at 0, 45 and 90 minutes post supplement consumption. In addition, energy intake was calculated following an ad libitum breakfast and as a 10-day average. RESULTS: A repeated measure ANOVA was used for analysis with significance accepted at p<0.05. A significant time and supplement effect but not between D1 and D10 was observed for ketone levels (KS D1: 0.2±0.1, 0.3±0.2, 0.6±0.2, 0.4±0.2 mmol/L and PL D1: 0.3±0.3, 0.3±0.4, 0.3±0.4, 0.3±0.2 mmol/L, KS D10: 0.2±0.3, 0.4±0.4, 0.7±0.4, 0.4±0.3 mmol/L, PL D10: 0.2±0.2, 0.3±0.3, 0.2±0.1, 0.2±0.1 mmol/L, p<0.05) at pre, 0, 45 and 90 min, respectively. A significant difference over time (p<0.05) but not between supplements or days (p>0.05) was observed for glucose. There was no significant difference observed in appetite profile (p>0.05) and energy intake at breakfast (KS D1: 212±110, D10: 184±127 kcals and PL D1: 187±131, D10: 191±151 kcals, p>0.5) or over 10-day average (KS: 1263± 259 and PL:1335±200 kcals/day, p=0.4). CONCLUSIONS: Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ketone salt supplementation caused modest elevation in blood ketone levels, however, did not have an effect on glucose, appetite profile or energy intake.

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