Article Title



Tyler F. Hewitt, Colby Sullivan, Christine Habeeb, Thomas Raedeke, Katrina DuBose, FACSM. East Carolina University, Greenville, NC.

BACKGROUND: An athlete’s confidence (i.e., efficacy) plays a pivotal role in sport, whether it is confidence in themself, in another, or in their collective group. Studies have shown that athletes’ self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and collective efficacy beliefs lead to beneficial outcomes, such as performance, effort, and persistence. While research has shown that athletes’ perceptions of coach behaviors are associated with their efficacy beliefs, no known research has utilized observed coaching behaviors when examining this relationship. The purpose of this study is to directly observe coaches and explore how their behaviors (i.e., instruction and feedback, positive and negative evaluation, autonomy support, and motivational climate) predict their athletes’ self-, other‑, and collective efficacy beliefs. METHODS: The target sample will include 10 head coaches and their athletes from 10 sports teams at a NCAA Division III institution. The target athlete sample will be between 75% - 80% of each team. Teams to be recruited include football, baseball, basketball, lacrosse, soccer, cross country, golf, swimming, tennis, and track. Because the proposed institution is an all-male college, all athletes will be males. Each coach will be video recorded at a single practice, and their behaviors will be coded using the Assessment of Coaching Tone observational coding system. This system quantifies these key behaviors: instruction and feedback, positive and negative evaluation, autonomy support, and motivational climate. Athletes will complete questionnaires assessing their efficacy beliefs immediately following practice. Self-efficacy will be measured using a scale developed in a prior study; other-efficacy will be assessed using a modified version of the Coaching Efficacy Scale; and collective efficacy will be measured using the Collective Efficacy Scale for Sports. A series of three regression analyses will be used to determine if specific coaching behaviors are predictors of athletes’ self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and collective efficacy beliefs. ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Based on the literature, it is expected that training and instruction, positive feedback, autonomy-support, and mastery-oriented behaviors will be positively associated with athletes’ efficacy beliefs; while negative feedback, controlling behaviors, and outcome-oriented behaviors will be negatively associated with athletes’ efficacy beliefs.

This document is currently not available here.