MICRONUTRIENTS AS PREDICTORS FOR MARKERS OF BONE HEALTH IN ATHLETES
Noah Stallard1, Rohit Ramadoss1, Kristin L. Osterberg2, Stella L. Volpe, FACSM1. 1Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. 2Gatorade Sports Science Institute, Bradenton, FL.
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies have implications on bone health, and athletes may be at risk. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to identify specific micronutrients that influence bone health in female and male endurance and non-endurance athletes, among three age groups, 18 to 29, 30 to 39, and above 40 years of age. METHODS: Female and male athletes, 18 years of age and older, were recruited. Body weight (kg), height (m), and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) were assessed. Lean body mass (LBM) (kg), total (TBMD) (g/cm3), lumbar (LBMD), and dual femur (FBMD) bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was measured using the 2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. A univariate analysis of variance was used to report differences in BMD between female and male endurance and non-endurance athletes, and among age groups. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to identify micronutrients that influence BMD. Multiple linear regression was then used to analyze intakes of micronutrients and BMD, with age, sex, and LBM as covariates. Significance level was set at a priori at p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 262 athletes (130 women and 132 men) were included. Participants were 35.8±11.3 years of age, and had a BMI of 24.5±3.3 kg/m2. For all athletes, endurance athletes had significantly lower TBMD (p=0.018), LBMD (p=0.001), and FBMD (p=0.003) compared to non-endurance athletes. Dietary zinc was positively associated (p=0.011) with FBMD in all athletes. Iron had a positive association (p=0.036) with FBMD in all athletes, 18 to 29 years of age. Iron was positively associated (p=0.038) with LBMD in non-endurance athletes, 18 to 29 years of age. Conversely, dietary iron intake was negatively correlated (p=0.024) with LBMD in non-endurance athletes, 30 to 39 years of age. Vitamin C intake was negatively correlated (p=0.041) with LBMD in non-endurance athletes, 40 years of age and older. Phosphorus intake was negatively associated (p=0.005) with LBMD in endurance athletes 40 years of age and older. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we found that dietary zinc and iron were most associated with FBMD and LBMD in athletes 18 to 29 and 30 to 39 years of age. Vitamin C and phosphorus were negatively correlated with LBMD in athletes 40 years of age and older. More prospective longitudinal research is required to further evaluate micronutrient intake and BMD among athletes.
Stallard, N; Ramadoss, R; Osterberg, KL; and Volpe, FACSM, SL
"MICRONUTRIENTS AS PREDICTORS FOR MARKERS OF BONE HEALTH IN ATHLETES,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings: Vol. 16:
2, Article 162.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijesab/vol16/iss2/162