Grayson F. Lipford1, John J. Herring2. 1Hampton University, Hampton, VA. 2Wake County Public School System, Raleigh, NC.

BACKGROUND: Long-term retention has shown to be enhanced though testing (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006) vs. study. Multiple-choice quizzes have been shown to enhance retention during subsequent exams (Bjork, Little & Storm, 2014). This study examined this relationship in a Human Physiology course (HP). METHODS: Students enrolled in an undergraduate HP were provided 10 online quizzes utilizing Blackboard Learning Management Systems (LMS). Students were allowed unlimited attempts, but were required to wait 2 hours or more between attempts on a quiz. Quizzes contained 10 random questions selected by LMS each time from large pools in random answer order. Students also took 4 in-class exams on content presented in the quizzes and a cumulative final exam (Final) at the end of the course. Two quizzes covered material in each Exam 1-4. The Final covered material from all 10 quizzes. Quizzes were scored on a 20-point scale, exams 1-4 scored on a 50-point scale and the Final was scored on a 100-point scale. Pearson correlation was used to compare the number of quiz attempts to quiz scores for each. Separately, quiz attempts and scores on the two quizzes for each exam were summed then compared to the subsequent exam grade. Total quiz attempts and average quiz scores were compared to the Final score. RESULTS: Subjects were 12 female and 46 male students. Mean number of attempts on quizzes ranged from 2.16 to 3.97 and mean scores ranged from 13.00 to 18.54 (65% to 92.7%). Mean exam scores ranged from 29.66 to 34.24 (59.31% to 68.48%) while the Final score mean was 66.327. Number of attempts were significantly correlated to the scores on quizzes 2 through 10 (r = 0.61 to 0.63, p < 0.007 or lower) but not quiz 1(p = 0.91). The average quiz score was significantly related to total attempts (r = 0.61, p < 0.001). scores on quizzes were positively related to scores on subsequent exams for Exams 1 and 2 (p < 0.012) and the cumulative final (r = 0.37, p = 0.005) but not on Exams 3 or 4 (p > 0.05). Attempts on quizzes were only significantly correlated to exam scores for the final cumulative exam (r = 0.61, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The number of attempts on online low-stakes quizzes were positively related to quiz scores which, subsequently were often positively related to exam scores. Therefore, online quizzes may be an effective learning tool to include in an undergraduate HP course.

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