Diego Castro-Diaz1, Austen L. Arnold1, Cameron M. Horsfall1, Benjamin Paquette1, Jessica A. Mutchler1, Nicholas J. Siekirk1, Barry A. Munkasy1, John C. Garner2, Samuel J. Wilson1. 1Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA. 2Troy University, Troy, AL.

BACKGROUND: For amateur golfers, there are multiple ways to transport their clubs during a round. Golf bags when acutely carried with a dual strap attenuate perceived effort and physiological demands compared to a single strap. However, it is not known how this compares to other carriage styles, or over longer durations. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different golf bag carriage methods on heart rate, energy expenditure, and perceived exertion (RPE) over the course of a 3 mile walk. METHODS: Recreational male and female golfers (n=10; f=6, m=4) completed the study. Participants completed a 3 mile walk along a designated path within the biomechanics laboratory for each load carry condition (no bag, push cart, single strap, dual strap high, dual strap low) wearing a statsport bioharness system which includes a polar heart rate (HR) monitor and global position system (GPS) to calculate caloric expenditure (KCALS). At each quarter mile, HR, KCALS and RPE were collected. Dependent variables were analyzed using a 5 x 13 (Load x Distance) repeated measures analysis of variance. Significant main effects were further examined using a Bonferonni correction factor and for interactions, simple effects were calculated. All analyses were conducted with an a priori alpha level of 0.05, and partial eta squared were calculated as measures of effect size. RESULTS: Analyses suggest distance main effects for HR (F(6,78) = 95.585, p < 0.001, η2= 0.880) and KCALS (F(6,78) = 118.962, p < 0.001, η2= 0.901). Large increases in HR from pre to 0.5 miles, then increases over time. KCALS showed an increase in energy expenditure for each distance measure. Further, there was a near significant interaction for KCALS F(24,312) = 1.536, p = 0.054, η2= 0.106. This potential interaction suggests that over the walk, energy expenditure was highest in the SS and low bag condition, followed by the push cart and high bag condition, with the no bag condition being the lowest. RPE results suggest an interaction. There were no significant differences between any load conditions at the start of testing. However over the walk the single strap and high bag had higher RPE. CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborate previous results that a single strap method may facilitate fatigue. The current results suggest using a push cart if possible or using a dual strap carry style to mitigate physiological demands.

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