Mathew C. Soto1, Andrew J. Jakiel1, Latt Mansor2, Nicholas P. Alden1, Megan C. Milian1, Rachel B. Crowe1, Jacob I. Dashiell1, Samuel G. Sanders1, Jenica D. Alvarez1, Ashley M. Bruce1, Stephen B. Podsen1, Sabrina R. Fordham1, Parker N. Hyde1. 1University of North Georgia, Dahlonega, GA. 2Health Via Modern Nutrition (HVMN), Miami, FL.

BACKGROUND: Current evidence demonstrates the efficacy of low carbohydrate/high fat ketogenic diets in clinical and athletic populations. Despite the pleiotropic effects of ketosis, many are wary of carbohydrate restriction due to decreased [glycogen]. R-1,3 butanediol (RBDO) supplements have made it possible to ingest ketone molecules, elevating blood b-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) despite consuming carbohydrates (CHO) in the diet. The purpose of this investigation was to determine metabolic effects of RBDO and CHO. METHODS: A randomized repeated measures placebo-controlled design was used to compare RBDO and placebo (PLA). Upon arrival blood analysis for blood BHB and glucose (GLU) were completed. Participants then ingested 0.5g/kg of RBDO or PLA and a standard meal (31g CHO, 2.5g fat, 13g protein). BHB and GLU were measured post-meal (IP), +15minutes (IP15), +30minutes (IP30) and +45minutes (IP45). Participants then conducted a 5k time-trial on a treadmill while breath gases were analyzed (COSMED, Italy). BHB and GLU were determined at baseline, midpoint and post run. Following aerobic testing participants completed five 10-second sprints against resistance (7.5% body mass). BHB and GLU were analyzed after their third and fifth effort. Statistical Analyses: Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to establish group and time effects. RESULTS: RBDO resulted in increased BHB relative to PLA at IP15 (p<0.001), IP30 (p<0.001), IP45 (p<0.001), all time-points for aerobic (p<0.001 for each) and anaerobic testing (Midpoint: p<0.01, Post: p<0.01). A significant decrease in BHB for RBDO, from pre-run (1.9±0.2mmol) to post-run (1.2±0.2mmol), was also observed (p=0.003). The RBDO group (82mg/dL) demonstrated lower blood glucose following the final bike sprint compared to PLA (105mg/dL; p=0.03). No differences existed between groups for respiratory exchange ratio. CONCLUSION: Acute supplementation with RBDO significantly increases blood ketone concentrations. The observed reduction in BHB occurring across the aerobic trial, with no concomitant changes in [GLU] or [lactate] demonstrate a preferential oxidation of the exogenous BHB serving to spare muscle glycogen. RBDO blunted the sympathetic elevation of blood glucose from repeated bike sprints, possibly due to enhanced substrate availability instead of reliance of glycogenolysis. Funding: Health Via Modern Nutrition (HVMN).

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