BACKGROUND: In the U.S., 45% of households own dogs, and many allow their dogs to share their beds. However, findings on the influence of co-sleeping with dogs on the sleep quality and daily physical activity (PA) of dog owners remain mixed. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how human-dog co-sleeping influences sleep quality and PA in dog owners.METHODS: Adults who are a primary caregiver of a dog (at least 6-months old) were recruited for an online survey which asked about human demographics, sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; higher scores indicate worse sleep quality), and PA. Demographics included race, sex, age, and number of dogs in the household. Participants reported their weekly PA frequency (days with at least 30 minutes of PA sufficient to raise their breathing rate). Participants were categorized as "co-sleepers" if they shared their bed with their dogs at least 5 d/wk and as "non-co-sleepers" if their dogs slept in the bedroom but not in the bed or in a different room. Independent t-tests compared sleep quality and PA across the two groups.RESULTS: Participants (n=301, age = 35±13 years) were primarily white (92%) and female (86%). Most participants (60%) owned only one dog and 46% of participants reported co-sleeping with a dog. There was no significant difference in the numbers of active days reported by co-sleepers (3.9±2.0 d/wk) and non-co-sleepers (4.0±2.2 d/wk, p=.10). Global PSQI scores did not significantly differ between the groups (6.6±3.3 vs. 6.0±3.2, p=.58). Sleep efficiency scores were significantly higher for those who co-slept than those who did not (.76±.96 vs. .48±.79, p=.01). Sleep duration scores trended higher for those who co-sleep than those who did not (1.2±.46 vs. 1.2±.51, p=.065).CONCLUSION: The lack of significant distinction in PA levels may suggest that disturbances caused by co-sleeping with dogs do not notably affect daytime PA. Co-sleepers exhibited significantly lower sleep efficiency compared to non-co-sleepers, indicating potential disruptions in their sleep patterns, possibly related to interactions with their dogs during the night. As dog interactions are suspected to be a factor affecting sleep efficiency, a study monitoring the behavior of both humans and dogs during the night, looking at factors like movement, noise, and comfort, may be insightful in viewing how co-sleeping with dogs affects PA and sleep patterns.Funding: Funded by the University of South Carolina Magellan Scholars Grant

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