BACKGROUND: Current evidence demonstrates that ketone supplements have made it possible to ingest ketone molecules, elevating blood b-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) despite consuming carbohydrates (CHO). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of R-1,3-butanediol (BDO) commercially available as KETONEIQ. METHODS: A randomized repeated measures placebo-controlled design was used to compare BDO and placebo (PLA). Performance testing consisted of ingestion of 0.5g/kg of BDO or PLA and a standard meal (31g CHO, 2.5g fat, 13g protein). Participants then conducted a 5km time-trial on a treadmill while breath gases were analyzed. BHB and GLU were determined at baseline, midpoint and post run. Following aerobic testing participants completed five 10-second sprints against resistance (7.5% body mass). Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test for differences in the various outcome variables. Main effects were evaluated by Fisher’s least significant difference post hoc testing. A significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was chosen. Smallest worthwhile change (SWC) in performance variables was calculated using Excel, the SWC was determined using 0.2 multiplied by between subject standard deviations during the PLA trial. RESULTS: BDO resulted in increased BHB at all time-points following baseline (20-minute p<0.001 and 40-minute). On the performance day, BDO supplementation resulted in significantly higher average power (BDO: 479.90 ± 282.60 watts; PLA: 414.86 ± 206.40 watts; p<0.0001 ) and average peak power (BDO: 597.42 ± 307.2 watts; PLA: 543.98 ± 270.80 watts; p<0.001)outputs across the five 10-second cycle sprints. Peak power was the highest wattage determined, while average peak power is the mean peak power across the five trials. Additionally, individuals supplemented with BDO demonstrated significantly higher pedal velocity max (BDO: 130.71± 13.3 RPM; PLA: 121.07 ± 25.7 RPM; p<0.05) Lastly, supplementation resulted in less fatigue as determined by Fatigue Index. SWC was determined to be 2.36 watts. Significantly less wattage decline was observed in the BDO (22.99 ± 11.8 watts) group compared to PLA (29.75 ± 5.5 watts) group (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Acute supplementation with KETONEIQ significantly increases blood ketones and significantly improved anaerobic performance on a repeated cycle ergometer assessment. Funding: Health Via Modern Nutrition (HVMN)

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