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Abstract

Westernized diet and sedentary lifestyle may exacerbate systemic inflammation and provoke hormonal changes. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) derived phytochemicals Oleocanthal (Oleo) and Oleacein (Olea) demonstrate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of Oleo/Olea supplementation and aerobic exercise training (AET) on plasma inflammatory cytokines and hormones in rats fed high fat atherogenic diet. METHODS: Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an atherogenic diet consisting of 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 12 weeks. Half of the rats were supplemented with 20% EVOO containing high Oleo/Olea (1000 mg/kg, HO, n=24) or low Oleo/Olea (100 mg/kg, LO, n=24). In each dietary group, half group was trained (T) on treadmill for 12 weeks (25m/min, 10% grade for 60 min/day, 5 days/week), while the other half remained sedentary. Two separate groups of rats were fed a chow diet (C, n=6) and atherogenic diet (A, n=12), respectively without EVOO or T. Inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α) and hormones (leptin and insulin) were measured in plasma using Bioplex 200 Multiplex immunoassay. RESULTS: IL-1β and TNF-α were increased in A vs. C (P=<0.01). LO increased IL-1β compared to A (P<0.05) but not HO. HO showed a trend to lower IL-1β vs.LO (P=0.064). Although MCP-1 and TNF-α were both decreased in EVOO vs. A (P>0.05), significant differences were only found in EVOO+T compared to A (P<0.05). Insulin was also decreased in LO vs. A (P<0.05), but elevated in HO vs. LO (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: High-fat atherogenic diet induced plasma inflammatory cytokines but were ameliorated by EVOO supplementation and AET. Hormones leptin and insulin were decreased by EVOO supplementation and AET.

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