Osteoporosis is a disease that affects many older individuals, resulting in a decrease in bone density. Involvement in impact loading sports has been associated with greater stiffness index (SI) of the calcaneus when compared to non-impact sports and abstinence from sports. However, comparisons between the effectiveness of impact and non-impact exercise equipment on calcaneal SI is less clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of treadmill versus elliptical exercise on calcaneal SI.



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