Recent evidence shows that low vitamin D status is related to higher risks for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular (CVD) events. Some studies support the association between higher levels of vitamin D and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic disease, however, this conclusion is not consistent in literature. PURPOSE: To investigate the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and clustering of risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: A total of 508 men and women (aged 19 to 70 years) from urban areas of Shanghai, China, were investigated. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected, and fasting blood samples were assessed for serum 25(OH)D, blood glucose and lipid concentrations. Participants were statistically grouped into tertiles according to their serum concentration level. Across the tertiles, linear regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and metabolic biomarkers, whereas logistic regression analyses were used to assess the odds ratio (OR) for individual dichotomous risk factors for cardiometabolic traits. RESULTS: Participants in the second and third tertiles had a 30% and 54% reduction in odds ratio (OR) for metabolic syndrome (MS) with reference to the first tertile (P = 0.238 and 0.041, respectively). A decreasing trend was observed in CVD risks with increasing 25(OH)D tertiles (OR = - 0.21 (95%CI: -0.45, -0.66), P = 0.365 for the second tertile; OR = - 0.41 (95%CI: - 0.65, - 1.06), P = 0.082 for the third tertile). Furthermore, a 1 ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D concentration in the third tertile was associated with a significant decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/L (P = 0.014) and 0.18 mmol/L (P = 0.026), respectively. There was no gender difference in vitamin D deficiency status, although women had a significantly higher dairy intake (P = 0.005) than men. Further, women with MS had a much lower serum 25(OH)D level than those without MS (28.5 ± 5.9 vs. 30.1 ± 5.8 ng/mL, P = 0.035), while no such difference was observed in male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum 25(OH)D concentration is associated with higher risks for cardiometabolic disorders in adult Shanghai residents. Furthermore, women with lower vitamin D status in this sample were more susceptible to cardiometabolic diseases than their male counterparts.

Supported by the FeiYue Scientific Research Fund of the Shanghai Municipality (FY200-A5-1-01)

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