Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Dr. Stuart Burris (Director), Dr. Kevin Williams, Dr. Rajalingam Dakshinamurthy

Degree Program

Department of Chemistry

Degree Type

Master of Science


Nanolithography is a rapidly evolving field that requires new combinations of techniques to improve patterning and to assist in fabricating electromechanical devices. An increasing number of applications require surfaces with defined regions of different chemical functionality. In our previous project optimum conditions for lithographic patterning were determined and potential blockers were identified to reduce force on the tip.

This work is focused on identifying good chemical modifications that will allow better control of basic patterning and to investigate the minimum force of patterning required while using each chemical system. The primary aim is to gain better control of basic pattern techniques in order to create more intricate patterns such as interdigitated arrays, which can subsequently be used in sensors. An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to pattern the prepared colloid-coated glass slides. Several compounds were used in the investigation, including sodium sulphate, potassium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, sodium bromide, and sodium iodide, potassium chloride, potassium bromide, potassium iodide, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, and potassium hydrogen phosphate.

In Summary, the following were found as a result of this work:

 The groups of sulphates were determined to require minimum patterning forces as indicated. Sodium sulphate took a force of 49 n Potassium sulphate took a force of 45 nN Magnesium sulphate took a force of 744.4 nN

 The group of sodium and potassium halides were determined the minimum patterning forces as indicated. Sodium fluoride took a force of 8.42 nN Sodium chloride and potassium chloride took a force of 20.19 and 61.9nN Sodium bromide and potassium bromide took a force of 601.4 nN and 37.2 nN, respectively Sodium iodide and potassium iodide took a force of 953.7 nN and 47.2 nN, respectively

 The phosphates were determined to require the minimum patterning forces as indicated. Potassium hydrogen phosphate took a force of 25nN Potassium dihydrogen phosphate took a force of 43 nN


Analytical Chemistry | Chemistry | Polymer Chemistry