Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Steven R. Wininger (Director), Lisa C. Duffin, Lance W. Hahn

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


Many Americans do not engage in the recommended amount of physical activity, and thus do not receive the potential physical and mental health benefits from physical activity. Stage of change is a model that categorizes individuals into one of five stages based on behavior and intentions for future behavior. This model is useful for promoting physical activity because it allows for tailoring of interventions to individuals with different physical activity levels and readiness for change. The main purpose of this research was to test if more adaptive scores for Essential Self-Regulation Model (ESRM) constructs are found for persons in higher stages of change. Analyses included 96 Western Kentucky University faculty and staff to test the hypothesis that as stage of change increases, the more adaptive the scores will be in regard to the ESRM constructs, including: self-determination (i.e., subtypes of motivation), self-efficacy, attributions, goal setting, strategy use, and self-monitoring. The results supported this hypothesis for intrinsic, integrated, and identified subtypes of motivation, cost, self-efficacy, and goal setting. Constructs that were not significant but had results in the hypothesized direction were introjected and amotivated subtypes of motivation, strategy use, and selfmonitoring. Attribution scores resulted in the opposite of the hypothesized direction. Conclusions, limitations, implications, and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Cognitive Psychology | Health Psychology | Psychology