Kevin Hughes

Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Doris Redfield, Carl Martray, and James Craig

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


The purpose of this study was to develop and provide construct validation evidence for the Children’s Academic Motivation Inventory (CAMI). The CAMI, the junior Index of Motivation Scale (JIM Scale), and the Children’s Social Desirability Scale (CSDS) were administered to 534 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students. Additionally, teacher assigned math grades; total math and total reading scores from the Kentucky Essential skills test (KEST); and the Cognitive Skills Index (CSI) from the Test of Cognitive Skills were obtained for each participant. Principal-components factor analysis with varimax rotation performed on the CAMI items produced essentially one factor, entitled academic achievement motivation. Coefficient alpha for the total CAMI was .92. The alpha coefficients for the twelve proposed factors of the CAMI ranged from .50 to .67. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using total CAMI scores as the criterion variable. JIM scale scores: CSDS scores; teacher-assigned math grades; total math reading scores from the KEST: and CSI scores functioned as the predictor variables. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that the combination of JIM scale scores, teacher-assigned math grades, CSDS scores, and total reading achievement scores provided the best prediction model for total CAMI scores (R2 = .18). JIM scale entered the equation first (F = 60.969; df = 1, 407; p < .001); CSDS scores entered second (F = 20.348; df = 1, 407; p < .001); CSDS scores entered third (F = 6.104; df = 1, 407: p < .05); and total reading achievement scores entered last (F = 4.667; df = 1, 407; p < .05). JIM Scale scores were selected for evidence of discriminant validity. The regression analysis demonstrated that the CAMI has convergent validity with regard to the JIM scale: discriminant validity with respect to the CSDS: and sensitivity to group differences with respect to the teacher-assigned math grades, the CSI scores, and total reading and math scores from the KEST. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were also computed to aid interpretation of the stepwise multiple regression results. The correlations between total CAMI scores and each of the predictor variables were: JIM Scale scores (r = .35, p < .001), teacher-assigned math grades (r = .23, p < .001), CSDS scores (r = .18, p < .001), Cognitive Skills Index (r = .19, p < .001), total reading achievement scores form the KEST (r =. 22, p < .001), and total math achievement scores from the KEST (r = .11, p < .05). This investigation provides evidence to support the construct validity of the CAMI. Implications for future research are discussed.


Child Psychology | Education | Junior High, Intermediate, Middle School Education and Teaching | Psychology