Donald Jary

Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Richard Miller, Daniel Roenker, Clinton Layne, David Shiek

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


Twenty naïve male and female hooded rats were randomly divided into four groups of five subjects each. The Observe Helpless group was allowed to observe Helpless subjects receive signaled, inescapable electric shock, after which they were tested for effective escape response acquisition. Subjects in the Observe Naïve group were allowed to observe Naïve subjects being given escape-avoidance training using signaled presentations of electric shock, after which the Observe Helpless group was given similar escape-avoidance training. Results indicate that there were significant differences in the acquisition of effective escape responses between the Observe Helpless group and the other two groups. Possible explanations for these differences, as well as implications for further research, are discussed.


Animal Studies | Applied Behavior Analysis | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences