Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Robert Hoyt, Frank Toman, Larry Gleason

Degree Program

Department of Biology

Degree Type

Master of Science


The objectives of this study were to determine naturally occurring concentrations of vitamin A1 and A2 in selected native fishes and, under laboratory conditions, to determine the possible role of beta-carotene and lutein in the synthesis of vitamin A by goldfish. The native fishes were selected to exhibit different feeding habits and were taken from different habitats (stream vs. lake) during different seasons of the year. In the laboratory, two possible precursors, beta-carotene and lutein, were incorporated into the diet to determine the role of these substances in the synthesis of vitamin A.

Species of fish differed in amounts of vitamin A1 and A2 by their ability to metabolize vitamin A from their environment. Seasonally, vitamin A1 and A2 were in highest concentration during the fall.

Drake's Creek fishes had a higher concentration of vitamin A1 and A2 than did those from Rough River Lake; however, no significant difference was observed.

Goldfish readily converted beta-carotene and lutein to vitamin A1 but only lutein conversion to vitamin A2 was suggested. Vitamin A1 conversion to A2 was also observed in this study.


Animal Sciences | Aquaculture and Fisheries | Biology | Life Sciences