Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Richard Miller, Daniel Roenker, Betsy Howton

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


Thirty-two male and female Balb-C mice were randomly divided into four groups of eight subjects each. The mice were injected with saline or naloxone either before or after the initial training of an active avoidance response. Forty trials were administered during the training and the retesting phases with the number of avoidance responses being recorded.

The results indicate that there was no significant difference between giving the treatment before versus after training. No significant difference was also observed between the saline versus naloxone groups, while a significant difference was found between training versus retesting. Possible explanations for both the nonsignificant and significant results are discussed.


Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences

Included in

Psychology Commons