Publication Date

Spring 2021

Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Dr. Sarah Ochs (Director), Dr. Carl Myers, and Dr. Melissa Baker

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Specialist in Education


The majority of fourth graders (65%) read below grade level, making it more likely for them to fall behind as curriculum progresses. English Language Learners (ELLs) are more likely to fall behind because of the additional risks and barriers they may face. In order to provide appropriate, evidence-based, reading instruction for this population of students, research was examined, summarized, and synthesized to determine which components of reading were targeted, their grade level, their native language, and intervention effectiveness.

A systematic review of the literature shows how fundamental the five components of reading are to the development of ELL students’ ability to read. The common theme among the 12 intervention studies was how they targeted one or more of the foundational components of reading instruction. Participants’ native language did not interfere with increases in students’ reading skills. Students’ grade levels ranged from pre-school to fifth grade. Eleven out of twelve research studies indicated small, moderate, or large increases to students’ reading skills.


Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Educational Psychology | School Psychology

Available for download on Sunday, April 21, 2024