Publication Date

Spring 2022

Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Sarah Ochs (Director), Carl Myers and Andrea Norman

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Specialist in Education


Writing is an essential skill for students to have now and later in life. Many students’ writing skills are not proficient for their grade level due to writing being overshadowed by other core academic subjects/areas. Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement (WE-CBM) is used to identify those at-risk for poor writing performance, as well as to monitor students’ progress towards reaching an academic goal. This study examined how student performance changed from fall to winter on typed and written responses using WE-CBM. Results show that performance change significantly differed by response type for several scoring metrics for both fourth and fifth grade students. Additional research is needed to examine the use of typed responses with WE-CBM.


Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Psychology | School Psychology

Available for download on Sunday, May 04, 2025