Publication Date


Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Mater of Arts


This study examines the use of "none of the above" (NOTA) as an answer option in a multiple-choice grammar test. Results from previous research on this topic have been mixed. Two forms of a grammar test, one without a NOTA option and one with a NOTA option, were developed and administered to a sample of 160 undergraduate students. Differences between the forms in item difficulty and discrimination were examined. Analysis revealed no differences in item discrimination or item difficulty between items without a NOTA option and items with a NOTA option. A discussion of the results, limitations, and suggestions for future research is provided.


Education | Psychology