Publication Date


Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


The time of day effect has been said to be involved with optimal arousal levels during an individual's preferred time of day. In the present study, invigorating background music was used to increase the arousal level of older adults in the afternoon in order to minimize the time of day effect that can be seen in test performance. The results indicated that invigorating background music had no significant effect on scores of a memory recognition task for older or younger adults. However, younger adults performed better than older adults in all testing combinations, older adults had significantly more false alarms than younger adults, and both younger and older adults performed the recognition task at a faster pace when music was present in the background.


Music | Psychology