Publication Date


Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Clinical Psychology


This study investigated the relationship between time perspective (TP) and the personality dispositions of optimism, pessimism, and realism with regard to their proposed influence on three measures that collectively assessed subjective well-being (SWB). The Depression-Happiness Scale (McGreal & Joseph, 1993) assessed happiness or the presence of positive affect and the absence of negative affect, the cognitiveaffective components of SWB. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) provided the measurement of subjective life satisfaction, the essential final cognitive-judgmental component of SWB. The Life Orientation Scale-Revised (LOT-R) (Scheier, Carver, and Bridges, 1994) and a Reality Scale, composed by the author, assessed the dispositional styles. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZPTI) (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) assessed TP. Five temporal perspectives were found. Results indicated that the TPs emerged as strong and unique predictors of SWB in regression analysis. An optimal temporal profile was found that consisted of a combination of Present-Hedonistic, Future, and Past-Positive TP characteristics.


Clinical Psychology | Mental and Social Health