Publication Date


Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


Using feedback scores from an established upward feedback program, the role of gender interactions, company tenure, and job tenure on leadership ratings of managers by subordinates were examined. Four separate analyses were conducted: a 2 X 2 ANOVA, a 2 X 6 ANOVA, and two Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (ATI) regression analyses in accordance with the procedure set forth in Pedhazur (1997). No significant main effects or interactions were found for manager gender and subordinate gender on ratings of managers. Manager company tenure had a significant effect on ratings of managers, R = .002, F (1, 168) = .53, p < .05, but manager job tenure was not found to have a significant effect on manager ratings. Subordinate company tenure also had a significant effect on manager ratings, F (5, 3973) = 5.95, p < .01. A post-hoc Scheffe's test indicated significant differences were shown between subordinates whose tenure was 6 months to 1 year and 1 to 3 years versus subordinates whose tenure was greater than 10 years, p < .05. The need for further research of factors that may influence upward feedback ratings was emphasized; limitations of the study were also discussed.


Industrial and Organizational Psychology