Publication Date


Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Education Specialist


The temperament patterns and temperament discrepancies between parents and children ages 3-7 years-old, who had been referred in school for behavior problems and children with no reported classroom behavior problems (matched control subjects), were examined along with levels of parenting stress. Nine "referred" children and nine "nonreferred" comparison children, matched on age and gender, were included in the study. The parents completed the TABC parent form, DOTS-R, and PSI. Whether or not the children had been referred for behavioral problems, ADHD, speech or learning difficulties was also recorded. It was found that the children in the "referred" group were reported by their parents to display a temperament pattern more like the difficult temperament described by Thomas and Chess (Goldsmith, 1987). They had higher levels of activity, distractibility, and negative mood expression than their "non-referred" counterparts. They were also found to be less adaptable and persistent. These results support research and theory that states that certain temperament characteristics, as described above, are associated with the later development of behavior problems (Carey, 1990).


Education | Psychology