International Journal of Exercise Science 13(5): 1501-1511, 2020. The purpose of the current study was to examine physiologic response, liking, and relative reinforcing value (RRV) of children playing an exergame with a friend under two goal structures: competitive and cooperative. A sample of twenty participants (8.7 ± 1.3 years old) and a self-selected friend completed three conditions: rest, competitive, and cooperative play. During the competitive condition, participants played Nintendo Wii Tennis® against their friend. During cooperative play, participants and their friend played together against a computer avatar. During each condition, oxygen consumption (VO2, ml∙kg-1∙min-1) and liking (visual analog scale) were recorded. After finishing all conditions, children completed an RRV computer task to assess their motivation to play the competitive versus cooperative goal structures. During this task children performed work (button presses) to participate in additional competitive play, cooperative play, or a combination. The output maximum (Omax), or maximum work for each goal structure, was used as the measure of RRV. It was determined that VO2 was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) greater for cooperative and competitive play than rest. Liking was significantly greater for cooperative play than rest (p ≤ 0.001) and competitive play (p = 0.03). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between cooperative and competitive play for VO2 or Omax. In conclusion, while liking was greater for the cooperative condition versus competitive, motivation did not differ between goal structures. Further investigation into methods of making physical activity more reinforcing, in addition to well-liked by children, is necessary to optimize this behavior.
Naylor, Jonathan B.; Patton, Beth J.; and Barkley, Jacob E.
"VO2, Liking, and Relative Reinforcing Value of Cooperative and Competitive Exergame Play in Young Children,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 13
5, Pages 1501 - 1511.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol13/iss5/11