International Journal of Exercise Science 14(2): 113-122, 2021. The Paleolithic diet, characterized by an emphasis on hunter-gatherer type foods accompanied by an exclusion of grains, dairy products, and highly processed food items, is often promoted for weight loss and a reduction in cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Specific adipokines, such as adiponectin, omentin, nesfatin, and vaspin are reported to be dysregulated with obesity and may respond favorably to diet-induced fat loss. We aimed to evaluate the effects of an eight-week Paleolithic dietary intervention on circulating adiponectin, omentin, nesfatin, and vaspin in a cohort of physically inactive, but otherwise healthy adults. Methods: Seven inactive adults participated in eight weeks of adherence to the Paleolithic Diet. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric, and body composition data were collected from each participant pre- and post-intervention. Serum adiponectin, omentin, nesfatin, and vaspin were measured. Results: After eight weeks of following the Paleolithic diet, there were reductions (p<0.05) in relative body fat (-4.4%), waist circumference (-5.9 cm), and sum of skinfolds (-36.8 mm). No changes were observed in waist to hip ratio (WHR), or in adiponectin, omentin, and nesfatin (p>0.05), while serum vaspin levels for all participants were undetectable. Conclusions: It is possible that although eight weeks resulted in modest body composition changes, short-term fat loss will not induce changes in adiponectin, omentin, and nesfatin in apparently healthy adults. Larger, long-term intervention studies that examine Paleolithic diet-induced changes across sex, body composition, and in populations with metabolic dysregulation are warranted.
Graff, Rachel M.; Jennings, Kristofer; Davies, Natalie A.; Carrillo, Andres E.; LaVoy, Emily C.; Ryan, Edward J.; and Markofski, Melissa M.
"A Short-Term Paleolithic Dietary Intervention Does Not Alter Adipokines Linked to Adiposity,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 14
2, Pages 113 - 122.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol14/iss2/3