International Journal of Exercise Science 15(1): 655-666, 2022. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between running ground reaction force (GRF) characteristics and hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) values in male runners. Individuals who ran at least 48.3 km per week and were injury-free were recruited. Kistler force plates collected running vertical and anteroposterior GRF data. A Hologic Discovery W bone densitometer measured lumbar spine and five regional hip BMD values. Only runners who consistently used a rear foot strike pattern were included (n = 32). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between BMD values and various GRF values and step-wise multiple regression was run to predict BMD values from the various GRF values. The vertical impact force was significantly correlated with the lumbar spine and four of the five hip BMD values (r > 0.374, p < 0.035). Both the peak early loading rate (ELR) and average ELR were significantly correlated with the lumbar spine and Ward’s triangle BMD (r > 0.430, p < 0.014), while the average active loading rate was correlated only with the Ward’s triangle BMD (r = 0.438, p = 0.012). Multiple regression revealed the peak impact force was the predictor for every hip region BMD other than the trochanter and the average ELR as a predictor for the lumbar spine BMD. The peak braking force was negatively correlated with the Ward’s triangle BMD (r = - 0.414, p = 0.019). It appears that the large forces and loading rates associated with rear foot striking may be advantageous and predictive for BMD at the hip and spine.
LeBlanc, Michele; Burdullis, Allison; McKinnon, Marcus; and Hawkins, Steven A.
"Relationship between Ground Reaction Force Characteristics and Bone Mineral Density of the Hip and Spine in Male Runners,"
International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 15
1, Pages 655 - 666.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/ijes/vol15/iss1/5