Other Subject Area

Exercise Physiology


International Journal of Exercise Science 16(4): 1499-1513, 2023. Addressing overweight and obesity to promote healthy aging is essential. Exercise is an outstanding approach to manage metabolic and physical dysfunction. Aquatic exercise has been recommended for older individuals due to reduced weight pressure on joints. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of twenty-eight weeks of combined aquatic exercise (aerobic and resistance) in overweight healthy older individuals. Thirty-two subjects of both genders with mean age of 72.06 ± 5.8 years were randomly assigned into two groups: an aquatic exercise group (EG; n = 19) and a control group (CG; n = 13). Body composition, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, and leptin were assessed before and after the training program. The lipid profile, fasting glucose, leptin, insulin, and insulin resistance did not change between and within groups. The lipid profile worsened in the CG. Reduction in body fat mass, waist and leg circumferences, along with body mass gain in the aquatic exercise group was observed (p ≤ 0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly improved in the exercise group (P = 0.003, P = 0.001). Significant differences were found in aerobic endurance (P = 0.008) and lower body flexibility (P = 0.049) of the aquatic exercise group compared with the control group. Also, upper body flexibility (P = 0.001, P = 0.020), lower and upper body strength (P = 0.001, P = 0.031), and handgrip (P = 0.001, P = 0.006), showed significant differences within the exercise group. Aquatic exercise may have a positive impact on the overweight aging population's metabolic and cardiovascular parameters, based on the observed improvements in blood pressure and body composition.