Nader Fotouhi

Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

David Stiles, Elmer Gray, Jodie Pennington


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Degree Program

Department of Agriculture

Degree Type

Master of Science


In vitro nitrogen solubility of raw soybeans (SB), soybean meal (SBM), distiller’s dried grain (DDG), and dehydrated alfalfa (ALF) – as well as dry matter disappearance (ND) of these feed residues in situ – were studied. In Experiment I, each feed was placed in autoclaved rumen fluid (ARF), distilled water (H2O), and saline (SAL) at the rate of 25 mg N/100 ml solvent. Nitrogen solubility of all feeds was significantly (P<.01) higher in ARF than in either H2O or SAL. The N solubility of ALF and DDG in H2O and SAL was not different (P>.01). SB had the highest (40.52% in ARF, 35.77% in H2O, 19.80% I nSAL) and DDG had the lowest (20.90% in ARF, 8.54% in H2O, 9.46% in SAL) N solubility (P<.01) of all feeds. SBM and ALF were medium solubility feeds, and their N solubility in H2O and SAL was not different (P>.01). In Experiment II 5 g samples of each feed were placed in the rumen of a fistulated cow. Following 24 h of rumen incubation, the dry matter disappearance (DMD) was 92.2%, 79.0%, 49.7%, 44.5% for SB, SBM, DDG and ALF, respectively. The nitrogen disappearance (ND) for SB, SBM, DDG and ALF after 24 h was 92.6%, 66.1%, 14.6% and 46.2%, respectively. There was a correlation (P<.01) between N solubility and ND at 24 h of rumen incubation.

In these two experiments, whole soybeans were very soluble and disappeared readily (in situ) in the rumen. SBM and ALF were somewhat intermediate in both aspects, whereas DDG was less soluble in vitro but had a disappearance similar to SBM and ALF in situ for the ruminant.


Agriculture | Agronomy and Crop Sciences | Life Sciences | Plant Sciences