Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Dr. Tony Paquin (Director), Dr. Betsy Shoenfelt,Dr. Reagan Brown

Degree Program

Department of Psychology

Degree Type

Master of Arts


This study examined the impact of Westernization on Tongan cultural values (Collectivism I, Collectivism II, Power Distance, Future Orientation, and Uncertainty Avoidance) related to business. A Tongan version of the Project GLOBE Beta Questionnaire measuring cultural dimensions at the societal level was completed by 222 Tongans from the island groups of Vava’u, Ha’apai, and Niuatoputapu. One-way ANOVA and planned comparison results indicated significant differences for Collectivism II and Uncertainty Avoidance. Scores from Vava’u showed significantly less Collectivism II than Ha’apai, but not Niuatoputapu. Furthermore, scores from Vava’u showed significantly less Uncertainty Avoidance than Ha’apai and Niuatoputapu. No significant differences were found between Ha’apai and Niuatoputapu on any of the cultural dimensions in this study. The results of this study indicate the cultural dimension scores in one of Tonga’s more populated and technologically advanced island groups are beginning to reflect the values of Western culture. Implications for organizations planning to conduct business in Tonga are discussed.


Business | International Business | Psychology | Social Psychology