Publication Date

Spring 2019

Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Antony D. Norman (Director), Elena Novak, and Pamela Petty

Degree Program

Educational Leadership Doctoral Program

Degree Type

Doctor of Education


In order to compare the accessibility, need, and extent of professional development, technology, and its relationship to low socioeconomic (SES) schools and achievement, data were accessed from the Kentucky Department of Education, Division of School and Community Nutrition Qualifying Data Report to identify schools with a greater than 50% free and reduced lunch rate. Data also came from the TELL Kentucky survey instrument results specific to questions related to professional development and technology. Kentucky Performance Rating for Educational Progress (KPREP) school rankings were also utilized to determine the highest and lowest ranked schools among those with greater than 50% free and reduced lunch rate. Rankings were determined using a formula provided by the Kentucky Department of Education.

Of all low SES schools, the findings indicate a significant difference when comparing higher ranking KPREP versus low ranking KPREP schools, with teachers at higher ranked schools reporting more accessibility to technology, appropriate time available for professional development, and sufficient training to utilize instructional technology as opposed to lower ranked schools according to TELL survey results. Of the three research questions, two had a medium effect size and one had a small to medium effect size, suggesting practical significance to the findings. The findings, however, are limited by two factors: 1) the TELL survey measures teacher perceptions about adequacy of technology access and training; and 2) only a small number of TELL survey items measure these perceptions. Thus, although significant, differences in teacher perceptions in higher-ranking KPREP SES versus low ranking schools are not informative for enacting true school reform. Follow up studies are needed to ascertain whether perceived differences in technology coincide with actual differences in accessible technology resources and training in these schools.


Communication Technology and New Media | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Teacher Education and Professional Development