Publication Date


Advisor(s) - Committee Chair

Dr. William Schlinker (Director), Dr. Kyong Hee Chon, Dr. Martha Day, Dr. Marge Maxwell

Degree Program

Educational Leadership Doctoral Program

Degree Type

Doctor of Education


Public education in the 21st Century can be characterized as being in a period of unparalleled change, including the adoption of Common Core State Standards, increased public accountability, and renewed emphasis on the educational needs of every student. Simultaneously, as public education seeks to address these demands, the digital divide between traditional classroom instruction and learning needs of 21st Century students continues to grow, despite considerable fiscal investments in educational technology.

This study examined two questions: What teacher-related factors positively impact the level of technology-infused lesson design? and To what degree does the use of an instructional framework to guide lesson design and provide feedback impact the level of technology-infused lesson design over time? The HEAT framework (Moersch, 2002) was used to guide and measure technology-infused lesson design among K-12 classroom teachers in a rural south central Kentucky school district. The HEAT framework addressed Higher-order thinking, Engagement of students, Authentic learning, and Technology use. In addition to a quarterly review of lesson plans from 151 teachers during the selected school year, a survey of teachers provided quantitative and qualitative data to address the research questions.

Analysis indicated that teacher-related factors that are commonly examined in relation to technology integration, such as age, years experience, educational level, content area, grade level, and level of training, do not significantly impact the level of technology-infused lesson design. Among the factors considered in the study, the confidence level of teachers as users of technology was the only factor that significantly impacted the level of lesson design. Analysis further indicated that the implementation of the HEAT framework to guide lesson design and provide feedback to teachers significantly increased the level of technology-infused lesson design, most notably within the areas of higher-order thinking, engagement of students, and authentic instruction.

The results indicated the need to examine which specific factors influence the confidence level of teachers as users of technology, as well as to focus technology integration efforts on leadership and behavioral factors. Moreover, the results indicated that technology integration should occur as part of a comprehensive plan to improve student learning


Educational Administration and Supervision | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Higher Education Administration | Instructional Media Design | Teacher Education and Professional Development | Technology and Innovation