Lead is a metal which has the ability to spread in the earth’s crust and has corrosive property. It is a naturally occurring metal which is soft in nature. Lead exposure in children is through various pathways and the major concentrated sources are the soil and drinking water. Children are most susceptible to lead exposure is due to their growing/developing bodies which are very sensitive to lead. Lead poisoning in children is a preventable environmental disease affecting many children around the world. This paper discusses how soil and water plays a major role in lead exposure to children’s routine life. The adverse effects of lead poisoning range widely from delayed to severe health outcomes. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the blood lead levels should be no higher than 5µg/dl, which is considered as the new reference value. The epidemiological studies in the article details some statistical evidence that how children are affected by lead exposure through soil and water. Animal behavioral studies are mentioned in order to compare the toxic levels to humans. Even though there has been decline in the blood lead levels in children from 1970’s, very small amounts of blood lead can also result in various health outcomes. These blood lead levels in children are due to the lead based paints in old houses and the service lines made by lead and lead solder. Due to some regulatory interventions by the state and federal agencies the developed countries have reduced the lead exposure to an extent, but the developing countries are still at greatest concern in childhood lead poisoning.


Environmental Public Health | Public Health | Toxicology