The authors' version of this paper posted here. Final version published in The Annals of Emergency Medicine, v.44, no.6 (2004): 646-655. Copyright 2004 by the American College of Emergency Physicians. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed2004.06.005


We differentiate risk factors for future homicide victimization and offending, and we measure emergency department (ED) use among homicide victims, offenders, and controls. The design was a matched case-control study conducted in Bernalillo County, NM, and its university-affiliated health sciences center and hospital. All Bernalillo County homicide victims (N=124) and offenders (N=138) identified between January 1996 and December 2001 who were linked to university physician billing records and who had health care use during the 3 years before the homicide incident were included as cases. Randomly selected age-matched (±1 year) and sex-matched subjects with health care use within 3 years of their matched pair’s homicide were included as controls. Main outcome measures were the number and type of ED visits by cases and controls. Patients with ED visits for assault, firearm injuries, and substance abuse are at increased risk for homicide and often have an escalating number of visits leading up to the homicide event. ED-based identification and referral programs similar to those used for intimate partner violence


Criminology | Medicine and Health | Sociology