Self-modeling can take different forms but is described as a process where one observes one’s own successful behavior and learns from it without dependence on any particular medium. In this study, two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate a video self-modeling (VSM) feedforward intervention. VSM feedforward (independent variable, IV), was applied as an intervention to improve oral-reading fluency (dependent variable, DV). An adapted multiple-probe baseline, single-subject research design with a pre-test and post-test standardized reading assessment was employed for both experiments.

Participants included eight students with disabilities and a history of emotional and behavior problems in middle-school, special education, self-contained classroom-based settings. Participants in Experiment I received an average of 117 min of instruction. Those in Experiment II received an average of 50 min of instruction. A positive effect was established for 3 out of 8 participants when the data demonstrated criterion was met, that PNDs were either in the effective or very effective range, and that oral-reading fluency gains had both generalized and maintained.

Criterion was obtained by 7 out of 8 participants. Maintenance data for 6 participants were above baseline levels and above the intervention level for 1 out of 8. Generalization of oral-reading fluency skills to an unfamiliar, grade-level text was indicated for 5 out of 8 participants. The generalization pre-test to post-test data ranged from 1 to 41 words. All of the participants had improvements in oral-reading fluency with post-test scores ranging from .3 to 1.7 grade equivalents above the pre-test scores.

Reading self-efficacy was assessed with a standardized measure administered as a pre-test and post-test. Mixed results were obtained with students in Experiment II having greater improvements than those in Experiment I. Of 8 participants, the responses of 4 indicated improved reader self-efficacy, 2 had mixed results, and 2 had responses that indicated a decline in their perceived, reader self-efficacy. Finally, both qualitative and quantitative measures demonstrated that VSM feedforward was a socially valid treatment for improving oral-reading fluency.


Educational Methods | Special Education and Teaching